Sure, studying is great. But when you can’t decide between “D” and “C,” here are seven tips to help land an “A.” We all know that the best way to ace any exam is to study and attend class. But, there are also some tips and techniques that can help you succeed at a tricky multiple choice exam


  1. Read very carefully. Take the time to carefully read each
  2. question and answer choice. Use a highlighter to ensure you catch words in the question like “not” and “except” that could easily trip you up. Many students choose the answer that is the opposite of the correct response simply because they miss a word, misread the question, or forget what the question is actually asking.
  3. Come up with your own answer. Once you understand what the question is asking, think about what the right answer should say or contain. Use that ideal answer as a yardstick to measure the available choices. This can help you avoid falling into a trap.Look for common types of wrong answers
  4. Look for common types of wrong answers . It is hard to write a good multiple choice exam, so instructors often fall into patterns, particularly when formulating wrong-but-attractive choices. If you learn to recognize frequently used options, they will be easier to eliminate. Some common wrong answers include: reversals (for instance, the answer may feature an error in chronology, characterizing the first event as the second, or a detail that is the exact opposite of the truth), true but irrelevant (the information in the answer is true, but not relevant to the question posed), too extreme (the answer takes a fact that is true but exaggerates it to an extreme. For instance, it will insist that it is “always” true, when in reality it is only sometimes true), and getting one detail wrong (the answer is oh-so-perfect…except for one little detail that you will spend way too long obsessing about and rationalizing away).
  5. Eliminate answers in two rounds .The process of elimination is central to success on multiple choice exams. In general, you want to conduct your eliminations in two rounds. During the first round, eliminate anything that is flat out wrong: the answers that contain false information, that are irrelevant to the question, etc. In a perfect world, this would lead you to one correct answer. More often than not, this leaves you with two options, over which you are likely to agonize. This is where the second round of elimination comes in. Before you obsess over your remaining answer choices, re-read the question. Remind yourself what you are looking for in a correct response. Then, compare the remaining responses. If you cannot find a difference between them, then it is likely that neither is correct and you have eliminated the correct response earlier. Usually, you will be able to find a few differences among the remaining options. So, which answer corresponds most with the course material and the question posed?
  6. Do not obsess over your choices. Excessive vacillating between two answer choices is usually a waste of time. If you’re down to a couple of options, you have a 50% chance of choosing the right answer. Compare your remaining choices, isolate similarities and differences, and make a choice. Usually, multiple choice exams have lots of questions, and they are all worth the same amount. Don’t waste time obsessing over a hard question, when an easy question does just as much to raise your grade.
  7. Manage your time. Before the exam begins, look at how many questions there are in the booklet and divide your time into segments. Tell yourself: “I will have completed 50 questions by the x minute mark, 70 by the y minute mark, etc.” When those time markers arise, check to see how many questions you have completed. If you are behind, start to push yourself to make quicker decisions once you’ve narrowed your choices down to two. Do not check the time after every question! This is a waste of your time. However, you need to be cognizant of the clock in order to ensure you get to all of the questions. As mentioned, usually questions are weighted equally on these types of tests, so there is little benefit to completing hard questions rather than easy ones.
  8. Answer every question. If you have not completed all of the questions when there are only a couple of minutes left, pick a lucky letter and guess on all remaining questions. Depending on how many options there are for each question, you have a 20-25% of guessing correctly! And a guessed correct response is worth just as much as one that is based on careful reasoning, time management, and studying.




Next stop, Shiraz

Although travel warnings are still in effect and American tourists are only allowed to visit as part of organized groups, the Iranian tourism industry is flourishing and the country is rapidly becoming a popular destination on the world tourism map.

All this is happening thanks to massive encouragement by the Iranian government, which has extended the permitted stay for tourists from two weeks to three months, and is making it much easier for tourists from most countries to obtain entry visas

According to data published in Iran, in 2015 the number of tourists there increased to more than 5 million, as compared to about 2.2 million in 2009. Though most visitors come from the Arab countries, first and foremost Iraq, the share of tourists from the West is burgeoning.

Many tourists who waited impatiently for the signing of the nuclear agreement between Tehran and the world powers, and the subsequent lifting of most of the sanctions on the country, are apparently not deterred from visiting there, even though the “high risk” travel warnings for American tourists remain in effect (particularly for U.S. citizens of Iranian origins), and even though both they and British tourists are allowed to visit Iran only on organized tours.

Anyone who has a spare $16,500 can join a trip this coming March, organized by the private railway travel company Golden Eagle, which offers luxury tours worldwide. This will be an 18-day trip called Persian Odyssey, which begins in Moscow and passes through the Gobi Desert to Turkmenistan and on to Iran’s splendid heritage sites and the capital, Tehran.

Anyone who does not have, or does not want to part with, that sum of money can fly from Vienna to Shiraz, in the central-western part of Iran, on one of the newly inaugurated flights plying that route, and sign up for a trip in the Loot Desert. An extraordinary experience awaits travelers in those salty expanses in the country’s eastern section: a chance to see a UNESCO heritage site, to climb the tallest dunes in the Middle East (about 700 meters high), to view rare geological formations and to enjoy fine hospitality in the city of Kerman.

Tehran, of course, is an essential destination for tourists but those who want to avoid the endless traffic jams in the capital and relax on the coast can go south to the island of Kish, 200 kilometers from Dubai, and find lodging at one of the 40 new hotels there. They can make the relatively short hop to Dubai to drink alcohol and then return to the booming shopping centers on the island.

Another possibility is to go north to the coast of the Caspian Sea or to climb the Alborz Mountains, which have sophisticated ski facilities that draw Iran’s wealthy during the winter.

Slowing down the flow

There are still quite a number of problems facing Iranian tourism that could slow its development. As part of budgeting process to encourage tourism, the Iran Air company has signed a deal to purchase new civilian planes from America’s Boeing company, which in the first stage are slated to operate on routes leading to Europe, and in the future to the U.S. as well.

Tomb of noted Persian poet Hafez, Shiraz, Iran. Ninara

Even though the contracts have already been signed and the U.S. secretary of the treasury has given the green light, however, expansion of the fleet of aircraft is at risk in the wake of a law passed in the U.S. House of Representatives, to the effect that the secretary of the treasury will not be able to approve sales of aircraft to Iran if the deal entails any involvement on the part of the American banking system.

Boeing, which is heavily lobbying Congress to allow the deal, is making it clear that prohibition of the sale of planes will not only harm its earnings – which, according to the company, are expected to top over $25 billion – but will also bring about the loss of more than 100,000 jobs in the U.S.

It is not clear what the fate of the law will be when it reaches the Senate, but the expectation is that even if it is approved, President Barack Obama is likely to veto it as in his opinion, banning sales of aircraft is contrary to existing agreements with Tehran. Iran does have alternatives, like purchasing the planes from Russia, but its first preference is for aircraft from Boeing and from the European Airbus company, with which a sales agreement has already been approved.

Tourists take a break at a coffee shop inside Nagshe Jahan bazaar in Isfahan, Iran. Simon Dawson/Bloomberg

Another problem for tourism is the small number of hotels in Tehran. There are currently only 96 of them and only about 13 are ranked, according to Iranian criteria, at the level of four and five stars – which falls far short of what is customary in the rest of the world’s urban centers.

Nevertheless, at the same time, investors in Iran’s tourism industry have reported to the Hotelier Middle East site that they are prepared to consider building new hotels in Iran. And a number of Western companies have already begun to look into the conditions the Iranian government is prepared to grant them for developing the industry.

Until new hotels are built, many tourists have been using internet services to find lodgings in private homes. Thousands of such arrangements have already been made, but not all of them work out well.

The Jame Mosque is seen in the heart of Yazd, Iran. David Stanley



This is the story of Ferdowsi’s life. And it is the story that is still told about Ferdowsi today.

It is impossible to say whether the story is true or not. But maybe whether it really happened or not doesn’t matter, as the story reveals something about Ferdowsi’s character and what people thought of him. The story shows Ferdowsi’s determination to write the perfect poem, his belief that he had achieved this aim, and his courage to stand up for his art. The story also seems to follow the pattern of many of the stories about Kings who make bad judgements in the Shahname itself!

Ferdowsi (940 – 1020Ad) was born in Tus, a town in North Eastern Iran, in the province of Khorasan.

As a boy Ferdowsi loved to play beside the river. But the bridge was always being washed away by floods. No one could build a bridge strong enough to withstand the floods. Ferdowsi dreamt that one day he might earn enough money to build a bridge that would stand up to the floods.

Ferdowsi became a renowned poet and was given the job by the King to write down the history of Persia. The King put Ferdowsi in a special room in his palace, which had paintings covering the walls, to inspire Ferdowsi’s poetry. The King told Ferdowsi that he would pay him 1000 gold pieces for each 1000 couplets that he managed to write.

At the end of 30 years of hard work, Ferdowsi had written 60,000 couplets – the Shahname. He gave the poem to the King and asked for his 60,000 gold pieces. But during the 30 years of writing Ferdowsi had argued with the King. Ferdowsi felt the King did not praise his work or value him enough. The King thought Ferdowsi was much too proud and only gave him 60,000 silver pieces.

Ferdowsi was furious. He left the palace and went back home to Tus. But he left behind a poem for the King, stuck to the wall of the room he had worked in for all those years. It was a long and angry poem, more like a curse, and ended with the words:

“heaven’s vengeance will not forget. Shrink tyrant from my words of fire, and tremble at a poets ire.”

The King ordered that Ferdowsi be found and trampled to death by elephants. So Ferdowsi begged for forgiveness. The King accepted but said he never wanted to see or hear from Ferdowsi again.

Many, many people complained to the King. In the end, the King felt remorseful and sent a camel train to Tus carrying 60,000 gold pieces along with cloth of silk, brocade and velvet, perfumes and spices.

But the King’s gifts arrived too late. It is said that Ferdowsi died before the camel train arrived. As the King’s caravan arrived in one gate of the city, Ferdowsi’s coffin and funeral procession left another gate of the city.

Ferdowsi’s daughter inherited her father’s hard earned money, and she built a new and strong bridge with a beautiful stone caravanserai nearby for travellers to rest and trade and tell stories.

Among the many miniatures paintings of the Shahname you will find many pictures of Ferdowsi himself, writing, showing his poems to the King and competing with other poets to prove that he really is the best poet of all.

Sally Pomme Clayton 2005

What is The Shahname?

The Shahaname was written down by poet Ferdowsi (940-1020AD). He collected together the pre-Islamic stories, legends, history, myths and poems that had been told by storytellers, grandparents and holy men for hundreds and hundreds of years.

Ferdowsi wrote the epic in rhyming couplets. It took him about 35 years to write the poem and it was finally completed in about 1010 ad. The full translation in English is 9 volumes long!

By the 14th century it had become the custom of the King to commission their own new copy of the Shahname, written and illustrated by the best painters and calligraphers of their time. It is the most frequently illustrated Persian text and has retained its popularity in Iran today. Many of these precious manuscripts dating from 13th -18th centuries have survived, and are held in museums and libraries throughout the world. Russia, Cairo, Istanbul, Berlin, Bombay, Tehran, Tashkent, Edinburgh, Bengal, and the USA, are examples of a few of the places where manuscripts can be found today.

What is an epic?

Storytelling is a living process and stories are slippery creatures. They can change their shape and their meaning according to the way tellers use them on their tongues, and the way listeners receive them in their ears. Genres are consequently elusive, and a story can shift genre according to both performance and context. However there are some general features about genres that make it possible to identify them.

You can look for: structural and verbal patterns; stylistic features; subject matter; performance styles, and the surrounding context of performance. These are rich sources for research, and will reveal some of the formal features that make up a genre.

Epics are usually long cycles of connected, or branching, poems. They are often concerned with battles and heroic deeds, combining historical fact with romance, adventure, magic, the supernatural, and the Gods. They often tell the stories of several generations of families. The epic tradition is one of performance, so the text is the result of a living performance tradition which would have incorporated both poetry and prose, speech and song, and might have been accompanied by music.

A Persian Epic

When Ferdowsi was writing Persia was much bigger than it is now, it extended beyond the borders of current Iran. It extended into parts of Central Asia, Afghanistan, India, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Persian based languages are also spoken by tribes and communities outside Iran: Dari, Baluchi and Pashtu are spoken in Afghanistan and Pakistan: Tadjik is spoken in Tajikistan: Kurdish is spoken in Turkey and Iraq; Osset is spoken in the Caucusus. These cultures know the Shahname, consider it their own and have their own versions of the stories. Even within Iran there are different versions of the Shahaname in different regions of the country.

Ferdowsi used pre-Islamic sources for his epic in an Islamic Iran. He wrote his poem in Persian rather than Arabic, creating a national epic that reconstructed the history and myth of the ancient Persian peoples. Consequently the Shahname has an important place in Persian culture and in the hearts of Persian people. Listening to the story, the audience find their place in community and in the wider cosmos, through listening to a story their identity is renewed.

Shahname Synopsis

“The houses that are the dwelling of today will sink beneath shower and sunshine to decay but storm and rain shall never mar the palace that I have built with my poetry.” Ferdowsi

The Shahname, literally meaning ‘Book of Kings,’ is structured according to the mythical and historical reign of 50 Persian Kings. The epic can be roughly divided into three parts: the first part tells of the mythical creation of Persia and its earliest mythical past; the second part tells of the legendary Kings and the heroes Rostam and Sohrab; the third part blends historical fact with legend, telling of the semi-mythical adventures of actual historical Kings.

Brief overview

Part one:

Opens with a cosmography and the creation of the world out of nothing.

The reign of Jamshid for 700 hundred years.

The rule of Zahhak the evil Serpent King who is finally killed by the blacksmith.

The rule of Faridun and his sons.

Part two:

The birth and reign of Zal.

The birth of his son Rostam.

The reign of Rostam for 300 years, during which he overcomes seven heroic trials and many demons, marries Tahmina.

The birth of Sohrab.

The death of Sohrab by his own father, Rostam.

Part three:

The reigns and adventures of, among others: Key Khosrow; Siyavush; Goshtasp; Esfandiyar; Darius; Alexander, and Bahram Gur.


So that’s why spinach makes your teeth feel weird

There’s one thing we don’t love about spinach, and that’s the strange, chalky feeling it leaves on your teeth after you eat a salad made with this leafy green.

If you’ve ever wondered what that sensation is, know that it’s not just you. “Spinach teeth” is a real thing, and it is a result of the high quantities of oxalic acid found in this leafy green.

Oxalic acid is a naturally occurring chemical found in plants but spinach tends to have higher amounts of it. Oxalic acid is referred to as a anti nutrient, because it can bond with minerals and block the body’s ability to absorb those nutrients. In the case of spinach, that nutrient is calcium.

Jennifer Moltoni — administrative coordinator at the Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine told Chowhound that when you chew spinach, the calcium in your saliva combines with the oxalic acid, and then calcium oxalate crystals are created. It is those crystals that stick to your teeth and make it feel gritty.

“It’s almost like tiny crystals are floating around in your mouth, so that’s what gives it that unusual feeling and texture,” Jim Correll, professor of plant and pathology from Arkansas University, explained to Live Science. And that’s all that feeling is.

There isn’t anything you can do to minimize that feeling, so just accept it and eat all the spinach you want. (Unless of course you have a tendency to form kidney stones. If that’s the case, talk to your doctor because it’s best to avoid a diet rich in oxalic acids.



Camping is an outdoor recreational activity in the chosen area. Generally participant(s) leave developed areas to spend time outdoors in more natural ones in pursuit of activities providing them enjoyment. The purpose of this is just enjoying nature

Sometimes and in some cultures, it is called Urdu. Terms such as Urdu, Picnic and etc are entirely differ from Camping in one signification. Camping depends on location, can be enjoyed through all four seasons. It could be erected in an open air or other cases such as tent or caravan. In the new century, an aristocratic and luxury camping is formed that is sometimes called Safar because the main purpose and major set up are in different regions of Africa. Camping as a recreational activity became popular among elites in the early 20th century. With time, it grew more democratic, and varied. Modern campers frequent publicly owned natural resources such as national and state parks, wilderness areas, and commercial campgrounds.

History of camping

 The history of recreational camping is often traced back to Thomas Hiram Holding, a British travelling tailor, who camped in the UK on the river Thames . By the 1880s large numbers of visitors took part in the pastime, which was connected to the late Victorian craze for pleasure boating. That was the first experience of modern camping.

 The early camping equipment was very heavy, so it was convenient to transport it by boat or to use craft that converted into tents. Although Thomas Hiram Holding is often seen as the father of modern camping in the UK, he was responsible for popularizing a different type of camping. He experienced the activity in the wild from his youth, when he had spent much time with his parents traveling across the American prairies. Later he embarked on a cycling and camping tour with some friends across Ireland in 1901. His book The Campers Handbook led to the formation of the first camping group in 1908.

The International Federation of Camping Clubs  was founded in 1932 with national clubs from all over the world affiliating with it. By the 1960s camping had become an established family holiday standard and today camp sites are ubiqitous and it is not limited to recreation and family aspects.

Love for nature in Shiraz

Going outdoor and picnicking has been always a custom in Iranian culture which also has mentioned in Persian poetries by various Iranian poems. For example Saadi, Hafez, Ferdowsi, Khayam…

Shiraz is one of the towns where this culture of outgoing in nature, gardens and green fields is a living custom. One noticeable memories that stays with visitors in Shiraz is to find local people at parks  or green fields in boulevards or random street corners, eating food and enjoying their time with families and friends.


Dental Diet



















A friendly diet for smily teeth


Cleans between teeth

Sesame Seeds

Rough surfaces help Clean teeth

Dairy Products

(Low –fat or fat –free)

Calcium neutralizes

Enamel-destroying acids.Celery

Red Peppers

Vitamin C promotes gum health

Sweet Potatoes

High vitamin-A content Promotes enamel formation

Citrus Fruit

Acidic citrus fruit Breaks down enamel


Stains teeth


Stains teeth

Sticky Candy

Suger sticks to teeth For extended periods


Surer and acid break Down enamel


For back-to-school, prepare lunches and snacks at home for healthy meals that are bursting with goodness!

To make your life a little easier, here are some great tips to help plan your meals and write up a shopping list so you’ll always have the basics at hand from the pantry to the freezer.

Perfect for healthy eating any time of day!

From the store shelf to your pantry shelf!

The grocery aisles are filled with healthy products designed for busy families. Why not take advantage of them? Fill up your shopping cart with go-to items that will get you out of a jam. Just a few well-picked ingredients can serve as the base for lots of quick delicious recipes.

In the pantry

Nuts and dried fruit: Full of energy and always delicious. You’ll never grow bored of these nutritious blends!

Granola bars: An all-in-one snack that’s easy to pop into a lunchbox.

Biscotti and rice crackers: Add some cheese or a container of drinkable yogurt for a complete sizable snack!

Fruit compote: No need to peel or cut!

Couscous and instant rice: Perfect with meat, in soups or as part of a salad.

Bottled tomato sauce and canned tomatoes: Add in some cream or wine, a can of tomatoes, veggies and meat and pour over pasta.

Pasta: Whether in a salad, au gratin or topped with a pile of veggies, pasta can be put together in no time and makes a perfect lunch

on the go.

Canned legumes: Ideal for soups, couscous, sauces and salads.

Canned tuna or salmon: Perfect in a sandwich or vegetable salad or mixed with pasta

In the fridge

Eggs: Use in quiches, omelettes, sandwiches and even salads.

Grated cheese: Mozzarella, cheddar, Gruyère, Parmesan… there are lots of delicious varieties to choose from!

Cold cuts: White ham, chorizo, prosciutto and more—cold cuts are perfect for sandwiches and cheese melts.

Pre-cut veggies: Washed, trimmed and cut, veggies make a super snack. Fill up on vitamins!

Dips: Hummus, guacamole or salsa, dips go great with biscotti or mini pitas!

Sauces and condiments: Tamari or soy sauce, lemon juice in a bottle, plain yogurt, mayo, or hot mustard—be sure to have the basics on hand to cook up a quick sauce and add flavour to your meals.

In the freezer

Frozen shrimp and fish: These defrost quickly for a healthy meal

after work.

Minced meat: How about a quick chili or some time-saving tacos? Ground beef, veal or lamb is perfect.

Fondue meat: Change things up by sautéing a few slices for a sandwich.

Quick boneless meats: Just transfer to the fridge before leaving for work in the morning for a quick and delicious meal when you get home!

Frozen veggies: Perfect for sautés, pasta sauce, soups and stews. Frozen spinach can be easily hidden in lasagna!

Frozen fruit: In crepes, yogurt or homemade smoothies.

Stuffed pasta: In salad, au gratin or covered in rosé sauce, stuffed pasta is nutritious, easy to prepare and fun for the whole family!

Different breads: Bagels, Kaiser rolls, pita bread… change it up for a new kind of sandwich!

Pizza and pie dough: Make it yourself and store in the freezer, or buy them ready-made at the store. Perfect for days when you’re pressed for time! Top pizza or quiche with fresh ingredients, pop in the oven for 10 minutes and you’re done






    Admission will be informed by the reception to you.

    تمامی حقوق برای کلینیک دکتر مینا محفوظ است 2019 – طراح HADI